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Neurohormonal blockade in HFrEF, we use

  • ARNI: Sacubitril/Valsartan, which enhances natriuretic peptides and blocks angiotensin II effects, reducing blood pressure and fluid overload.

  • ACE Inhibitors: Lisinopril, Enalapril, Ramipril, which prevent the formation of angiotensin II, leading to vasodilation and reduced cardiac workload.

  • ARBs: Losartan, Valsartan, Candesartan, which block angiotensin II receptors, decreasing vasoconstriction and sodium retention.

  • Beta-Blockers: Carvedilol, Bisoprolol, Metoprolol Succinate, which slow heart rate and reduce myocardial oxygen demand.

  • MRAs: Spironolactone, Eplerenone, which counteract aldosterone, reducing fluid retention and cardiac remodeling.

  • SGLT2 Inhibitors: Dapagliflozin, Empagliflozin, Canagliflozin, which cause glucose excretion and have beneficial effects on cardiac function and hospitalization rates.

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